People with skin type I are usually pale, blonde or red hair, freckled with blue eyes and likely to experience severe sun damage from ultra-violet exposure. They usually burn easily, without ever having a tan. This skin type is believed to be highly susceptible to premature ageing and skin cancers (including melanoma, the deadliest type of skin cancer) and one is therefore advised to take extreme care, use sunscreen and protect yourself from harmful UV rays as extreme sun exposure can result in serious damage, premature ageing and skin cancers such as squamous cell carcinoma SCC, Basal cell Carcinoma BCC and Melanoma . The Role of Pheomelanin:
It has been recognised that the type of melanin that blondes and red-heads have –pheomelanin - seems to be important in skin cancer risk. This type of melanin acts as a co-conspirator in causing a person to be more at-risk for developing skin cancer. In other words, this type of melanin that causes blonde and red hair actually increases the risk for cell death such as seen in sunburn. Melanin filters out UV radiation, but it also actually increases the UV harmful effects and causes cell death, particularly when the melanin is the kind found in light hair or skin. Pheomelanin acts with the sun's UV rays to increase sun damage. Pheomelanin or red melanin can vary widely, depending on whether your ancestors were Irish, Swedish or Dutch, and some of these variations are known to be associated with greater risk for skin cancer.
Skin Type I individuals are conducive to the usual aesthetic treatments and most treatments can safely be done without the danger of adverse side effects such as hyper- or hypopigmentation occurring. Aggressive Ablative resurfacing treatments ( not done at Skin Renewal) such CO 2 laser , Erbium Yag laser and Phenol peels can result in permanent hypopigmentation (whitish skin that has lost its pigmentation) and should be avoided.
Best skin care practices for Skin Type I
- Minimise sun damage. Individuals with this skin type should stay out of the sun during the peak hours of 10am - 4pm, wear a high SPF 30 sunscreen every day and re apply it at lunchtime . Products with titanium dioxide or zinc oxide or Avobenzone provide protection against both UVA and UVB rays. For sensitive skins micronised zinc oxide is recommended and avoid Avobenzone . Seek the shade whenever you are out in the sun , wear a high SPF of 50 , wear protective clothing, wide brimmed hats, sunglasses, etc. and reapply a SPF of 50 every 90 minutes if you are unable to avoid the sun. Wear sunglasses that provide UVA protection as UVA exposure can cause cataracts. Tanning beds and booth are prohibited and contraindicated at all times as they have a high intensity of UV output , many times stronger than the midday summer sun in most countries and actively promote skin cancers.
- Internal Skin Protection: Oral supplements such as Polypodium leucotomas (Heliocare) and Pycnogenol ©(Ovelle) that offer sun protection and increase resistance against the damaging effects of the sun should be considered. Polypodium leucotomas also protects the cell internally against skin cancers. Even out pigmentation.The new pigmentation peptides such as Oligopeptide-34, Oligopeptide-51, Oligopeptide-53, Pentapeptide-15, together with Arbutin, and Kojic acid block melanin production. If pigmentation fails to respond to topical depigmenting agents then it may be necessary to have treatment with chemical peels and laser technology.
- Reverse some pre-existing age related changes such as wrinkles. Once the signs of ageing such as wrinkles appear on the facial skin, it is time to initiate the most powerful corrective treatments such as growth factors , peptides , PHAs to improve collagen content and wrinkling.
- Check your skin head-to-toe each month, paying careful attention to any suspicious growths. An annual consultation by a dermatologist is mandatory to exclude any dermal pathology such as melanoma and skin cancers especially if there is a family history of cancer or if the person has a history of any serious sunburn exposure.
In office aesthetic treatments for Fitzpatrick Skin Type I
In general, skin types I have a low risk for problems (e.g. skin discoloration, blotchiness, darkening or lightening of the skin, burns, scarring) following aesthetic treatments and therefore the ideal skin type for any of the following treatments:
- Botox and fillers work well on this skin type
- Microdermabrasion and all types of chemical peels including mid dermal peels such as Mela M and TCA
- Laser & Light such as Pearl, Titan, Laser Genesis and Lime Light skin treatments can be safely used on skin type II with minimal pain and no downtime or side effects
- Radiofrequency such as Accent and TriPollar radiofrequency procedures can be safely used on skin type I with minimal pain and no downtime or side effects
- Mesotherapy and transdermal mesotherapy can be safely used as well as
- Carboxytherapy and
- Dermaroller skin needling
Aggressive Ablative resurfacing treatments ( not done at Skin Renewal) such CO 2 laser , Erbium Yag laser and Phenol peels can result in permanent hypopigmentation (whitish skin that has lost its pigmentation) and should be avoided.
Skin Care Regimen for Skin Type I
1. CLEANSE AND EXFOLIATE:
- Clean skin twice a day. If you have dry or sensitive skin , use a gentle creamy cleanser that does not contain sulphate. Oily or acne prone skin should cleanse with a salicylic acid cleanser
- Exfoliate twice a week if you have normal or oily skin. Exfoliate once a week if you have sensitive skin or active acne.
2. CORRECTIVES FOR SKIN PROBLEMS :
Wrinkles: Once the signs of ageing such as wrinkles appear on the facial skin, it is time to initiate the most powerful corrective treatments such as growth factors and peptides to improve collagen content and wrinkling.
Topical products to improve wrinkles and collagen in Skin Type1:
- Growth Factors and Peptides found in Dermaheal offer the ultimate in anti-ageing and laser-free skin remodelling products. Set out to be the most powerful, corrective product on the market and is available at all Skin Renewal clinics.
- Retinoic Acid /Retinaldehyde binds to receptors in the skin cells. Regular treatment over several months can lead to partial reversal of extrinsic photo-aging. Retinoic Acid such as Retin A should not be used during pregnancy because it is potentially teratogenic. It is only available on prescription . Renewal cream by Neostrata contains a less irritating form called Retinol and is available at all Skin Renewal clinics.
- Alpha hydroxyl acids (AHAs) and Polyhydroxy acids (PHAs) such as glycolic acid, lactic acid and gluconolactone are primarily used as chemical exfoliants. Long-term use of these leads to increased collagen and elastin synthesis, and increased glycosaminoglycan concentration in the dermis. Clinically, concentrations less than 10% improve skin texture and pigmentation, while higher concentrations lead to improvement in fine wrinkling. AHAs and PHAs are considered safe in pregnancy and cause less skin irritation than retinoic acid and are available in Neostrata products at all Skin Renewal clinics.
- Additional Skin Care ingredients to improve wrinkles in Skin Type II:Copper peptide, Epidermal growth factor, Insulin growth factor, Fibroblast growth factor, Vit C, Oligopeptide - 34, Oligopeptide - 51, Oligopeptide-53 and Pentapeptide – 15.
Topical e products with active ingredients to even out pigmentation Skin Type 1. The following is a list of skin care ingredients to USE if one has pigmentation:
Oligopeptide-34, Oligopeptide-51, Oligopeptide-53, Pentapeptide-15, arbutin, bearberry, cucumber extract, hydroquinone, kojic acid, liquorice extract, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, mulberry extract, niacinamide, retinol, resorcinol, beta hydroxyl acid, vitamin c
The following is a list of skin care ingredients to AVOID if you have skin type VI, because it might enhance dark spots.
Oestradiol, oestrogen, genistein, black cohosh, chasteberry, hops, red clever, soy and wild yams.
Topical products with active ingredients to avoid if you have acne in Skin Type1:
Cinnamon oil, Cocoa butter, Cocus nucifera, Isoprpopyl isostearate, Isopropyl myristate, Isopropyl myristate, Butyl stearate, Isostearyl neopentanoate, Myristyl myristate, Octyl palmitate, Isocetyl srearate, Propylene glycol 2, Myristyl propionate, Lanolin, Peppermint oil, Decyl Oleate, Octyl stearate.
Redness and Rosacea:
Topical products with active ingredients to avoid if you have redness and rosacea in Skin Type1:
Alpha Lipoic Acid, AHAs, PHA, Retinol, Retinaldehyde, Retinyl palmitate, Vitamin C, Benzoyl Peroxide, Gluconolactone, Phytic acid, Acetic acid, Allantoin, Balsam of peru, Benzoic acid, Camphor, Cinnamic acid, Cinnamon oil, Cocoa butter, coconut oil, DMAE, Isopropyl isostearate, Isopropyl myrisstate, Lactic acid, Menthol, Parabens, Peppermint oil and Quarternium.
These are ingredients/nutrients that feed the skin which you may not get from your diet. These can be applied topically to fight free radicals damage and to calm, soothe and heal skin.
- Vitamin C can be used for pigmentation issues and healthier looking skin.
- Vitamin E protects against sun damage
- Alpha Lipoic Acid fights a range of free radicals, promotes energy in living ells and helps promote a healthy glow.
- Green Tea extract soothes irritated skin and can help with rosacea, inflammation and mild acne.
- Aloe Vera has powerful soothing and moisturising properties and is great for oily skin , eczema and rosacea.
- Botanical extracts such as Camellia sinensis, rosemary extract etc provide an alternative to chemically manufactured products
Keep skin well hydrated and moisturised as well hydrated cells are healthier and look and function better. Dehydrated skin cells are prone to sensitivity and infection.
- Humectants attract water to the skin cell and thus plump up fine lines and wrinkles giving your skin a smooth, youthful glow. These humectants include hyaluronic acid, sodium hyaluronate, glycerine, glycerides, propylene glycol, sorbitol urea, colloidal oatmeal .
- Occlusives bind water to your skin and slow the loss of water by forming a barrier on the skin’s surface . These include beeswax, lecithin, dimethicone, ceramides, cetyl alcohol and grapeseed oil
- Emollients are lipids that add lubrication to the surface of the skin by binding water and preventing evaporation and include hea butter, avocado, acai, passion fruit, mango, coconut, olive oil, rosehip oil, evening primrose oil, GLA and squalane
- Additional Skin Care ingredients to moisturise and hydrate Skin type I :ajuga turkestanica, aloe vera, apricot kernel oil, borage seed oil, canola oil, , cholestrol, dexpanthenol, Jjojoba oil, macadamia nut oil, safflower oil,
- External Skin Protection: Products with titanium dioxide or zinc oxide or Avobenzone provide protection against both UVA and UVB rays. Micronised Zinc oxide is recommended for sensitive skins and avoid vobenzone , PABA, Benzophenone, Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, Octyl methoxycinnamate, Methylbenzylidene camphor, Phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid if you have sensitive skin
- Internal Skin Protection: Oral supplements such as Polypodium leucotomas (Heliocare) and Pycnogenol ® (Ovelle) that offer sun protection and increase resistance against the damaging effects of the sun should be considered.