Cutaneous ageing signs of sun-damaged skin become visible from as early as the twenties, especially with excessive sun or environmental exposure. However, between the ages of 30 to 50 years, there is a sharp increase in the prevalence of skin changes clearly ascribable to photo-ageing.
Characteristics of facial sun-damaged skin include fine and coarse wrinkle formation, pigmentation changes, discolouration, dry texture, loss of elasticity, loss of skin tone, sagging subcutaneous tissues, underlying muscle hypertrophy and volume loss in the face.
How does sun exposure age our skin?
Without protection from the sun's rays, just a few minutes of exposure each day over the years can cause noticeable changes to the skin. Freckles, age spots, dilated pores, uneven tone, spider veins on the face, rough and leathery skin, fine wrinkles that disappear when stretched, loose skin, a blotchy complexion, actinic keratoses (thick wart-like, rough, reddish patches of skin), and skin cancer can all be traced to sun exposure.
The skin ages when the epidermis (outer layer of the skin) begins to thin, causing the junction with the dermis (outer layer) to flatten. Sun-damaged skin has a thicker epidermis, which is "dead" and irregular. There is increased water loss from the skin and a decrease of the sebaceous glands, which provides natural moisture to the skin. More abnormal cells accumulate in aged skin, especially if there is chronic sun damage, which can lead to pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions.
Scientific studies have shown that repeated ultraviolet (UV) exposure breaks down collagen and impairs the synthesis of new collagen. The sun also attacks our elastin. Sun-damaged skin also causes chronic inflammation of the skin and an increase of elastin that clusters into thick bundles called solar elastosis. Collagen decreases as we age and the bundles of collagen, which gives the skin turgor, become looser and lose strength.
People with fair skin who have a history of sun exposure develop more signs of sun damage than those with dark skin. In people of colour, the signs of sun damage are usually limited to fine wrinkles, a mottled complexion and sagging of the mid-face leading to under-eye bags.
The degree of sun damage as classified by Glogau:
1. Mild (age 28-35 years): Few wrinkles, no actinic keratosis (tender red dry spots), requires little or no make-up.
2. Moderate (age 35-50 years): Early wrinkling, sallow complexion with early actinic keratosis( tender red dry spots), requires little make-up.
3. Advanced (age 50-60 years): Persistent wrinkling, discolouration of the skin with telangiectasia and actinic keratosis( tender red dry spots), always wear make-up.
4. Severe (age 65-70 years): Severe wrinkling, photo ageing, gravitational and dynamic forces affecting the skin, actinic keratosis ( tender red dry spots) with or without skin cancer, wears makeup with poor coverage.
In-Clinic treatments for Sun-damaged skin include:
Pearl Fractional Laser & Pearl Laser (Pearl Fusion)
Fraxel DUAL Laser
RF Needling with Secret RF or Endymed Intensif
Medium to deep peels – 3D Peel; Yellow Peel; TCA; Dermamelan; Cosmelan
PRP / Vampire Facial
Monopolar Radiofrequency – Exilis Elite; Titania; Lavatron
Endymed 3DEEP RF
ND:Yag Skin Tightening
PDL (Pulsed Dye Laser)
Laser Painting or Laser Toning with Candela VBEAM
Injectable therapies performed by a Doctor:
Skin Boosters by Restylane
Support treatments such as:
IV Infusions with Glutathione and Vitamin C
Anti-inflammatory IV Infusions